The Chinese economy has continuously seen rapid growth over the past years, which has led to a unique increase in passenger and freight traffic volumes. Every day, 35,000 vehicles are joining more than 120 million existing passenger cars on Chinese roads. Notwithstanding the undoubted significant role of the transport sector to support economic development, the subsequent environmental consequences are severe.
In Beijing, for instance, approx. 25-30% of pollutants are emitted by mobile on-road emissions. Hence, the central and local governments are keen on adopting necessary measures in order to lower mobile source emissions. Understanding the source of the problem is key in developing adequate policy measures. This is why the Vehicle Emission Control Centre (VECC) of the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) together with the Sino-German project on Low Carbon Transport and the Environmental Partnership organised a two day workshop from 3rd to 4th March 2016 on Mobile Source Emission Modelling and Emission Reduction Strategies.
At the workshop, experts from Austria (Martin Rexeis, TU Graz), Switzerland (Phillip Wüthrich, INFRAS), and Germany (Daniel Bongardt, GIZ) presented Emission Models widely used in Europe, including the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) and the Passenger Car and Heavy Duty Vehicle Emission Model (PHEM). Taking a look at emission modelling in China, the China Vehicle Emission model (CVEM), the Beijinger Emission Model and Inventory (EMBEV) as well as the China Road Transport Emission Model (CRTEM) were introduced. Complimenting presentations by MEP (Yin Hang), Tsinghua University (Prof. Wu Ye) and GIZ China (Sun Shenzang), insight into statistics, monitoring, and low-carbon policy research (Huang Quansheng, Ministry of Transport) and vehicle emission measurement progress achieved were provided by Chinese experts.
The participants concluded that linking greenhouse gas and air pollution emission modelling is useful. The comparison between test results in Europe and China shows that for gasoline passenger cars emissions are very similar and emission factors can be transferred. However, test results indicate that high emitting vehicles are a particularly problematic in China. Currently, it is unknown how many of such vehicles with failed emission reduction technologies are running on China’s roads. Here experts suggested looking further into remote sensing technologies. With regard to measurements, cooperation between labs and researchers is essential as the European example of the ERMES group shows. ERMES is a network of organisations working on emission measurement and modelling that exchange data and experiences. It would be beneficial to follow a similar approach in China. The strong support by the MEP could be an opportunity in the coming months.
The Sino German Low Carbon Transport Project and the Sino German Environmental Partnership are implemented by GIZ on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety in the context of the International Climate Initiative.
Presentations by the speakers are available for download below.
Ding Yan Deputy Director, Vehicle Emission Control Center, MEP:
China Vehicle Emission Inventory and Control Strategy [Download]
Daniel Bongardt Advisor ‘Transport and Climate Change’, GIZ:
European Mobile Source Emission Modelling and Reduction Strategy [Download]
Martin Rexeis Senior Scientist, Technical University of Graz (TU Graz):
Passenger Car and Heavy Duty Emission Model (PHEM) [Download]
And again on the next day about: Analysis Emission Data: Pilot Phase vs. ERMES [Download]
Philipp Wüthrich Senior Project Manager, INFRAS:
Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) [Download]
And again in the afternoon on: Methodology to Localise HBEFA to China Context [Download]
Yin Hang Head of Policy Research Division, Vehicle Emission Control Center, MEP:
Introduction to China Vehicle Emission Model (CVEM) [Download]
Huang Quansheng, Deputy Head of Environment and Resource Division, Transport Planning and Research Institute, MOT:
Transport carbon emission statistics and monitoring and low-carbon policy research
Sun Shengyang Project Manager, GIZ China:
Introduction to China Road Transport Emission Model (CRTEM)
Su Sheng Deputy Director, Xiamen Environment Protection Vehicle Emission Control Technology Center:
China In-use Vehicle Emission Measurement [Download]
Ge Yunshan Prof., Beijing Institute of Technology:
Vehicle Emission Measurement in China [Download]
China Automotive Technology & Research Center:
Emission Measurement of Heavy Duty Vehicles in China
Liu Ying Deputy Director, Beijing Transport Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction Center:
Beijing Transport Emission Monitoring System [Download]
Chen Yanyan Prof., Beijing University of Technology:
Research on Bus Vehicle Emissions in Beijing
Wu Ye Prof., School of Environment, Tsinghua University:
Emission Model and Inventory of Beijing Vehicle Fleet (EMBEV) [Download]